Brass medal Matthias II standard
Matthias II, Holy Roman emperor, king of Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia, Archduke of Austria of the Habsburg house, was the third son of emperor Maximilian II and his cousin Maria of Spain, and also younger brother of Rudolf II. In 1611 he married his cousin Anna of Tirol, however their marriage did not produce surviving children. After the death of his brother Ernest (second born) in 1595, he strived to confirm his succession after Rudolf. Contrary to his elder brothers, he was not brought up in Spain, but in Austria. The aspiration for power led him to an open revolt which ended by the signing of the so-called Libeňský peace in 1608, when Rudolf yielded rule of Hungary, Austria and Moravia to Matthias and appointed him as his successor in Bohemia. After Rudolf’s unsuccessful attempt to reverse the situation with the help of the bishop of Passau‘s troops that badly ransacked the country, Rudolf II was forced to abdicate and Matthias II seized also Bohemia and, thus, the entire Habsburg domain. With his accession to the throne, Prague was no longer the capital of the empire. The Bohemian Protestant revolt began at the end of his reign.